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real advances in building a bridge between the leaders and the members of the movement. Despite the fact that Bogdanov sets the novel on Mars, this science-fiction novel presents visual representations of the verbal images found in superficial slogans and complex philosophies. As Menni said and Bogdanov thought, "Books like this one are merely intended to consolidate and reinforce…knowledge, filling in gaps in the process and suggesting…further avenues of study."4 The gaps between the Bolshevik rank-and-file and leaders tended to be quite big though.

One of these gaps was the most "mystical" and important part of Marxist thought, The Revolution. Bogdanov spends quite a bit of time discussing the issue of revolutions and makes the argument that the fight will never end and that apparent successes or failures ought not change the diligence and efforts to improve the world. This message is especially appropriate after the unsuccessful attempts in 1905 to change the fundamental ruling order of Russia left some disillusioned. As Bogdanov writes, "the public consciousness was…deeply impressed by the events" and "everyone expected a quick and victorious end to the struggle" so when failure occurred, an uplifting was necessary.5

Bogdanov was aware of this and used Red Star to help educate the rank-and-file Bolshevik members, and anyone else that was reading, that The Revolution would not be an easy task and even afterwards there would be work to do. The Martians achieved their workers' utopia because they had been working almost twice as long as Earthlings, only had to worry about one-fourth of the land size, and were blessed by very few geographic features that would hinder communication and interaction such as vast oceans and

4 Bogdanov, 52.
5 Bogdanov, 24.
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