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struggles. Bogdanov is sending a clear message that those who think that with the end of The Revolution the utopia will come and all will be well are mistaken.

Bogdanov's points regarding the efforts to achieve an utopia and the difficulty of life afterwards should be seen not as alarming or shocking but as an attempt to raise awareness. He clearly does not want to inject doubt into the revolutionary struggle, but the book's message is that the Bolshevik ideology and path to utopia are not as simple as slogans or overly simplistic party messages would have one believe. This may not be what the party leaders, rank-and-file members, and non-members want to hear but if mere pleasantries were what Bogdanov wished to write about he would have helped create more slogans. Instead, Bogdanov takes the opportunity to explain both the fortunate and unfortunate aspects of freeing the world.

More pleasing to the party and their supporters' ears are Bogdanov's treatments of other issues fundamentally important to the Bolshevik ideology. Inequality and exploitation, both of which were central concerns of Marx and Lenin, resonated with workers and others who were on the lower rungs of society. Here too Bogdanov hopes to demystify and explain how freedom and equality could be achieved and guaranteed in an utopian state.

As was mentioned before, in-turn-of-the-century Russia, there existed a disparity in education between the elite and the masses. The elite certainly resented the na´ve or ignorant masses, as were the poor of those who could afford education and a more luxurious lifestyle. An example of this peasant resentment is seen during the 1870s when the Populists went to the countryside to help and learn from the peasants. They soon

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