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returned to the cities after being treated suspiciously and with some degree of hostility.9 In the book, Martians eradicated these feelings and hierarchical structures long ago contributing to the Martians educational and social equality. The only real designations that suggest differences between people are the recognition that some people are more skilled than others at certain tasks. An excellent illustration of this point occurs during the trip back to Mars when Menni explains to Leonid how each person trusts and values the specialization of others (Netti for medical advice, Sterni's calculations, etc.) and that he is only captain because of his experience, not to control others.10

An additional example of how equality exists within Martian society is early on in Leonid's flight to Mars when he and Netti are discussing some of Menni's contributions to space travel and Martian life in general. After Netti explains what Menni had done for Martian science, Leonid concludes, "Menni must be a truly great man."11 Netti disagrees with Leonid's choice of words and suggests that Menni is no different than other workers by explaining Menni's place within the Martian society in a very rational (and socialist) perspective.

This question of disparity also involves that of labor and social mobility. Bogdanov lays out a labor system on Mars that is completely fluid. People are free to work as much as they like in as many different fields as they like. Labor is organized only in so much that shortages and surpluses in each industry are made known to the Martians who take this information into account when making labor decisions.12 This degree of freedom and equality was non-existent during the tsarist days when hierarchy,


9 Figes, 85-86.
10 Bogdanov, 38.
11 Bogdanov, 43.
12 Bogdanov, 65-66.
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