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education, and social mobility were largely dependent on family and wealth. With some exceptions, officers in the military were from the upper echelons of society and the soldiers were peasants. Similarly, those that made up the intelligentsia were from well-to-do backgrounds and could afford to read and write about the Russian questions (What is to be done? Who is to be blamed?). These lines were drawn and redrawn daily with traditions and laws that dictated dress and manners of talk based upon one's class. Bogdanov attempted to explain and outline how the amazing Martian system of labor, where people can visit a museum in the morning, be a tailor in the afternoon, and work in a factory at night, is possible. He did this without relying upon empty slogans or complex philosophical rhetoric.

The Martian belief in equality for all is reinforced and assisted by the emphasis on a collective identity, one that is greater than the individual. If we look again at the dialogue between Leonid and Netti about Menni's role and importance within Martian society, it is clear that they feel that every worker, both alive and dead, is important. The fact that all of the Martians are very calm and patient when attempting to help Leonid understand how certain things operated (e.g., the machines at the factory or concepts of Martian life) shows that each person wants to help others so that the collective is stronger.13 In fact, the Martians are even willing to sacrifice themselves if it means a better environment for future generations of Martians.14

The Martian attitude that no one is unimportant and that dress ought not to signify social distinctions would have been refreshing for a great many of Bogdanov's readers. The lower classes within Russia were being treated like fodder, literally in the case of the

 


13 Bogdanov, 99-100.
14 Bogdanov, 44, 73-74, 110-111.
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