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relinquish his Viking heritage when he became Duke of Apulia. In subsequent years, he showed very little regard for the wishes of the Pope. Despite two sentences of excommunication from Pope Gregory VII between 1074 and 1080, he went ahead and conquered the Pope's allies, Amalfi (in 1073) and Salerno (in 1077), and in 1078 he besieged Benevento, which was technically the property of the Papacy. Gregory eventually came to realize that there was no use in opposing such a powerful individual, and that the Papacy could have much more to gain from an alliance with him. Moreover, King Henry IV of Germany, Gregory's opponent in the famous controversy over lay investiture, was threatening to invade Rome, depose Gregory, and appoint his own Pope. Gregory was in dire need of military protection, and so in 1080 he reaffirmed the pact Robert had made with Nicholas II in 1059. Robert again swore to be "the vassal [fidelis] of the Holy Roman Church and of the Apostolic See and of you, my lord Gregory, universal pope." He promised to pay tribute and protect Papal elections, revenues, and property. He also promised to hand over to Rome the government of all churches and church possessions within his territory, and he promised to stop raiding and pillaging Papal lands. In return he received Gregory's formal investiture "with the lands granted to you by my predecessors of blessed memory, Nicholas [II] and Alexander [II]," as well as his acquiescence on the issue of Robert's possession of Salerno and Amalfi.28 Shortly thereafter, Gregory also blessed Robert's invasion of the Byzantine Empire.29

Gregory would make use of this agreement in 1082, when Henry IV attacked and occupied part of Rome, forcing the Pope to barricade himself behind the walls of his fortress, Castel Sant' Angelo. Gregory appealed to Robert Guiscard for help, who was


28. Letters 8.1(a), (b), and (c), trans. Emerton 158-160.
29. Douglas, The Norman Achievement, 102. See the section on the Normans in the South as "crusaders," p. 17 below.
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