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the time on the other side of the Adriatic, marching steadily through the Balkans on his way to Constantinople. Robert had returned to Apulia and was in the process of organizing his army to come to Gregory's rescue, when the Romans surrendered to and allied themselves with Henry in 1084. After this occurred, Henry had just enough time for his anti-Pope, Clement III, to crown him Holy Roman Emperor before Robert at last began approaching with his forces. Clement and Henry with his army fled north before Robert arrived, but the Romans remained true to their agreement with the Germans and held out against the Normans. When the Guiscard finally forced his entry past the city walls, he plundered and burned the Holy City and enslaved many of its citizens. In his and Gregory's eyes, the Romans were not entitled to any clemency for betraying the Pope; but such a defilement of the Eternal City and the See of St. Peter is difficult to justify. The savagery of Pope Gregory's Norman vassals, which recalled the sack of Rome by the barbarian Visigoths in 410 and the Arabs in 846 (Robert in fact employed Arabs in his army), earned them and Gregory himself the hatred of the Romans. Robert decided to withdraw and escort Gregory under his protection to Benevento, where the exiled Pope died a year later.30

From this point on, Norman protection of the Papacy, and even Papal dependence on the Normans, was an established fact. In 1086 Prince Richard of Capua's son and successor, Jordan, installed the canonically elected Pope Victor III at Rome, in the face of opposition from Henry IV's anti-Pope, Clement III. Robert Guiscard's sons Roger Borsa (who succeeded him as Duke of Apulia) and Bohemund did the same for Pope Urban II


30. Norwich 234-243
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