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Euphemia in Calabria (1062); Holy Trinity in Venosa, Apulia (1063); Santa Maria della Mattina in Calabria (1065); and Holy Trinity in Mileto, Calabria (before 1080).51 He also rebuilt and beautified the cathedral of Salerno. He, his wife Sichelgaita, and their son Roger Borsa were frequent and generous donors to the monastery of La Cava near Salerno. Roger I, meanwhile, founded four Benedictine monasteries, including San Bartholomew on the Aeolian island of Lipari (before 1085), and Sant' Agatha at Catania in Sicily (1091), where the Norman chronicler Gaufredus Malaterra resided, after he moved from Santa Euphemia.52

They installed Normans or Latins as the abbots of the monasteries they founded in order to better control their newly-won territories. Robert II of Grandmesnil, who was the abbot of Saint Evroul in Normandy until a dispute with Duke William II forced him to flee to Italy, was there made abbot of Santa Euphemia by Robert Guiscard in 1062.53 (Robert's half sister Judith went to the South with him and soon thereafter married Count Roger.54 ) Abbot Robert brought many of the monks of Saint Evroul with him to Calabria. Two of these Norman monks, Berengar fitz Arnald and William fitz Ingram, quickly became the abbots of the houses of the Holy Trinity at Venosa and San Michele at Mileto, respectively. Count Roger brought a Breton, Ansger, from Santa Euphemia to his new abbey of Sant' Agatha in Catania. In 1085 Roger convinced a group of Norman monks of the Augustinian order who were passing through Sicily on their way back from a pilgrimage to Jerusalem to stay, and he founded Santa Maria of Bagnara for them. Saint Bruno of Cologne, the founder of the Carthusian order, came to Calabria with some


51. Ordericus Vitalis 3.5, trans. Forester 1.438f.
52. Douglas, The Norman Achievement, 147.
53. Ordericus Vitalis 3.5, trans. Forester 1.431-1.439.
54. Norwich, 146f. Douglas, The Norman Achievement, 232.
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