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Normans arrived. The Norman-Papal alliance allowed the power of the Papacy to follow in the tracks of the Norman conquests.

This was especially significant because it gave the Papacy a broader base for drawing support for its Gregorian reform movement, which aimed at decreasing the influence of laymen on the Church and increasing the power of the clergy and the See of Saint Peter. The Normans, in exchange for Papal sanction of their campaigns and expansive powers over ecclesiastical affairs within their territories, ensured that their subjects adhered to the norms of canon law, and that all of their bishops and clergymen would be tried only by other clerics, not laymen, for violations of canon law.60 Consequently, the prelates of Sicily and Southern Italy, whom the Normans almost always appointed with the Pope's approval, all stood by Pope Nicholas II's decrees establishing the system of Papal elections and abolishing simony, clerical marriage, and lay investiture--let the contradiction be duly noted. Gregory VII could also rest assured that the prelates of Sicily and Southern Italy would stand by his Dictatus Papae, which he issued in 1075 to assert the virtually all-encompassing powers of the Papacy. The Dictatus claimed the existence of a Papal (not royal) theocracy, a divine hierarchy with the Pope directly below God and everyone else on Earth subordinate to the Pope.61 The German Emperors violently contested these assertions, and so the Papacy turned to the Normans for help, as discussed above. In addition to giving military assistance to the Pope, another way in which the Normans helped Rome was by subjecting Sicily and Southern Italy to canon law and Papal administration. With its power thus expanded, the Papacy recompensed the Normans by allowing them to choose which of their friends

60. Douglas, The Norman Achievement, 136f.
61. The Dictatus Papae (March 1075), trans. in Tierney, 49f.
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