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would become the archbishops, bishops, and abbots of their lands. This alliance provided mutual benefits to both the Normans and the Papacy.

Gregory's successor, Urban II, Pope from 1088-1099, went even further than his predecessors in his willingness to grant ecclesiastical authority to Count Roger. The Great Count hosted Urban in 1088 while the Emperor Henry IV's anti-Pope Clement III held Rome, and after several attempts the Normans finally succeeded in securing Urban in the Holy City in 1093.62 In 1095, Roger's daughter, Constance, married Henry IV's son, Conrad, who supported the Papacy in the investiture contest and was rebelling against his father.63 Consequently, Urban granted legatine powers to Roger, possibly in 1088 at a meeting with the Count in Troina, and definitely in 1098, after Roger objected when Urban tried to appoint Robert, bishop of Troina, as his legate in Sicily. On 5 July 1098 Urban issued a bull in which he promised not to appoint any legates in Sicily or Calabria unless he had the voluntatem aut consilium ("good will or counsel") of the Count or his sons, Simon and Roger, when they succeeded him. He also said he wanted Roger to act as a standing Papal legate in Sicily (legati vice . . . quando ad vos ex latere nostro miserimus, ("in place of" or "like a legate...when we have sent to you from our side") and that Roger was permitted to send whomever he wanted from his land to any ecclesiastical councils.64 The exact implications of the wording of this bull are unclear, but it is certain that, as mentioned above, Roger exercised a considerable amount of authority over the Church in his county; the bull makes it clear that Urban assented to Roger's ecclesiastical authority.


62. Norwich, 268.
63. Douglas, The Norman Achievement, 135.
64. Gaufredus Malaterra 4.29.
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