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from the Papacy and became the official guardians of the See of St. Peter, and protectors of the Church.

Chivalry for the Normans meant the reconciliation of their warrior spirit with the needs of the Church. For the Papacy, it meant the reconciliation of the Church's obligation to always remain dedicated to peace with the notion of Christians fighting "just" wars on behalf of Christendom and for its benefit. When this was accomplished, both sides put the resulting concord to good use. The Normans helped secure canonically elected pontiffs against the German emperors' attempts to appoint their own popes. The Normans became secure rulers whose legitimacy was unquestionable. With the Papacy's help, they acquired a sacred aura that, along with their military prowess, confirmed their right to govern and augmented their power over their subjects. Thus it came about that the congregation in the cathedral of Bari hailed Duke Robert Guiscard, who started his career in Italy as a horse thief, when it sang the Exultet on Holy Saturday.67


67. Douglas, The Norman Achievement, 118.
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