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were accomplished by God himself.32 One must wonder if a similar perspective was shared by Constantine. After all, he did march on Rome with the belief that the Christian God would grant him victory, and, although it was Constantine's army that defeated Maxentius' in battle, it was the breaking of the bridge that killed Maxentius and won the war. Whether or not Constantine believed that God had performed a conspicuous miracle in order to grant him victory is not particularly important, however - for Constantine had defeated Maxentius. Constantine entered battle knowing that God would eventually give him victory, and he defeated his enemy and took sole control of the West. Thus Constantine first saw the Christian God as a giver of military victory. Constantine's initial impression of God would not change; most of the depictions on his later coins were militaristic in nature and included the Chi-Rho and the labarum, which he saw as tokens of his victory.33

Thus Constantine entered the Battle of the Milvian Bridge confident that God would grant him victory after he had followed His divine order. Whether or not he saw the breaking of the bridge of boats as a miracle, he was victorious, and this would have a profound effect upon him.

After the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, Constantine acted in a manner consistent with the above conclusions. If one accepts that Constantine entered the battle believing that the Christian God would award him victory, then one must also accept the profound effect that such a victory would have upon him. Baynes uses this point to conclude his argument about the Battle of the Milvian Bridge.34 Alfoldi also mentions this, citing the fact that Constantine was a superstitious man, and because of this the victory would have seriously affected him.35


32. Eusebius, The History of the Church, Book IX.
33. Diana Bowder, The Age of Constantine and Julian. (USA, 1978), 92.
34. Baynes, 6.
35. Alfoldi, 23.
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