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independence period led to the chaos that characterized the first fifty years after independence. The 'fathers of independence', like San Martín, died in exile, and this signals the crisis of the patriarchal system and the failures of independence. During the fight for independence, individual liberties had comprised the political focus. By the 1860s, 'order' became the political priority, and there was a resurgence of authoritarian governments throughout Latin America.

3. Does the creoles' self-representation as fathers imply an equation of family and state (the larger family), of private and public spheres? Does their quest for legitimacy, in a way, provide a historical continuity with the Roman republic, specifically the presentation of the pater familias as the legitimate ruler during the Roman Republic and the rise of the Empire? In general terms, can we think of the patriarchal approach to political power in an emergent republic as legitimized by its precedent in antiquity?8

The image of a good father as the model for a republican citizen was prevalent in Spanish America during independence. The discourse that presented creoles as a patriarchal (rather than oppressive) class was both imposed on and accepted by the lower classes. If creoles were to take the role of fathers, they must then be fathers who respect the rights of slaves as citizens in the new nations. Creoles asserted the legitimacy of their political authority by presenting themselves as the descendants of the Spanish 'civilizers' and the inheritors of colonial hierarchy. At the same time, however, the family in the period of independence was in crisis. The independence struggle created divisions within families, as fathers and sons fought in opposite sides--besides more general divisions among creoles based on fights over 'honor'. This had consequences in the broader political system. For example, Juan Manuel de Rosas, the caudillo of the Province of Buenos Aires in the post-independence period, was deemed an 'unnatural father'. This led to a challenge of patriarchal society, based on republican ideas. The traditional hierarchy was


8. We are well aware that historical parallels are swampy terrain. But the present question is justified if we remember that Bolívar, for example, had been educated on ancient Western literature. The models that he and other independence leaders adopted may not, after all, have been fortuitous.
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