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subverted by the formation of associations (brotherhoods) with a stress on horizontal rather than vertical relations.9 The Generation of 1837 in Buenos Aires was an example, from which writers and political thinkers arose in opposition to the patriarchal Rosas. The image of the father as having legitimate republican authority was certainly present in the struggle for independence and its aftermath. However, we cannot talk of a cultural continuity proper, as the idea of fatherly legitimacy is dubious when we take into account familial disruption and broad opposition to figures who, like Rosas, sought legitimacy by projecting the image of fathers of the nation.

4. Is the twentieth-century phenomenon of populism, in a way, a revival of the patriarchal (or paternalistic) society in the form of a corporate state?

Populism arises under totally different circumstances in the 1930s in Brazil and in the 1940s in Argentina. By this time, there had been a very large immigration of Europeans, and the societies in question were in the process of industrialization, so populism was a very different event.

9. Benedict Anderson has commented that the modern nation is conceived as an association of equals, in which internal social relations are closer to the relation between siblings than that between parents and children. The very concept of nation therefore challenges a patriarchal conception of society (Benedict Anderson, "How Can a Nation Be Good?," Quigley Lecture, Georgetown University, 3 November 2000).
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