Crystal Eastman, "New Analytical Tools:
Raising Questions about Old Ideas"


Deborah Poole's article, "Landscape and the Imperial Subject: U.S. Images of the Andes, 1859-1930," provides a suitable case study for Salvatore's "enterprise of knowledge." Church's The Heart of the Andes (1859), Squier's Desaguadero (1868), and Bingham's The Land beyond the Ranges (1912) were all created out of curiosity for the unknown and a desire to show the North American masses images of the mysterious Peruvian Andes. Furthermore, these images helped the public attach a visual picture to a distant place and this image in many ways justified imperial interests in South America. The uncivilized landscape portrayed by the paintings depicted a land ripe for penetration. Throughout her article, Poole mentions that there was a void in North Americans' visual consciousness and therefore these depictions (or representational machines) complimented and inevitably shaped the scientific studies, travelers' guides, and moral missions in Latin America. This example of how artists were motivated to explore and depict Latin America is emblematic of what Salvatore is pointing to in his article. The U.S. empire was a variegated enterprise, comprised of a kaleidoscope of interests in the name of knowledge and beyond the realm of the economic and diplomatic.

Critique and conclusion

In this essay I have discussed how Joseph and Salvatore question assumptions made in dependency and imperialism theories and add to the canon of methodology new ways of looking at U.S.-Latin American relations. Both Joseph and Salvatore offer compelling and convincing new slants on the old dependency and imperialist theories. I think it is important that each of these scholars is not attempting to cast away the old paradigms-they are instead trying to nuance, complicate, supplement, and call into question some of the assumptions made about U.S.-Latin American relations. My main

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