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-Ian Mckay

of this era, in addition to a wide selection of primary sources, the following conclusions become clear: The Scottish identity was strengthened in this era despite national hardships, and based largely on a defiant anti-English sentiment. This nationalistic attitude overshadowed an underlying spirit of self-doubt brought on by the very same national hardships. The Scottish identity consisted of a sense of patriotic pride and a sense of national interest, both of which were strengthened by the events of this era.

It is important to note that Scotland itself in 1688 was split between two very different cultures. The Highland clans were Catholic, spoke Gaelic, and had an ancient social structure based on honor and loyalty, while the Lowlands were Protestant, spoke English, and had a society more like the rest of Europe at the time, with commerce and a system of laws as its base.2 The two are both part of Scotland and both will be given consideration, but for the most part this study will focus on the Lowland's sense of the Scottish nation. This is because most Scots in this era were Lowlanders, and it was their society that would soon come to conquer all of Scotland. Although this study seeks to define the Scottish identity as a whole and for the majority, it will still seek to highlight the ruling class and the highland views of Scottish identity where appropriate.

2. Simon Schama, The Wars of the British: 1603-1776, vol. 2 of A History of Britain, (New York: Talk Miramax Books, 2001), 330.