By 1688, the English could no longer tolerate the sovereign
the two nations shared, a Catholic James VII of Scotland (James II of England),
and deposed the "joint" monarch. Scotland looked on as its king
was sent away to France and a new one was brought in as England's monarch.
England's choice of monarchs, William and Mary, were soon adopted as Scotland's
monarchs as well. This was a significant turning point in Scotland's history
because it ended any illusion that the monarch served both nations equally.
Scotland had to choose between accepting England's choice of monarchs or adopting
another Stuart that might seriously threaten England with a Francophile and
Catholic monarch on her northern frontier. If it had not been clear already,
it was now apparent that under the regal union England had significant influence
over Scotland's sovereign.
Despite the humbling nature of this realization, the Glorious Revolution was not very unpopular in the Calvinist lowlands, as they were discontent with the Catholic James as well. James had not only filled English positions with Catholics but had also appointed Catholics to govern Scotland.6 But it did have a very profound effect on the Highlands, one that would come to shape them until 1745 and beyond. The Catholic Highlanders felt a degree of loyalty to James, and his dethroning led to a very short-lived Highland rebellion which soon lost steam after its leader was killed in battle.7 The catalyzing event was the Glencoe Massacre in 1692, which still holds a mythical aspect in Scotland today. The massacre was organized by the new king's minister for Scotland, John Dalrymple, when a Highland clan, the MacDonalds of Glencoe, were late in swearing allegiance to the new king. After unwittingly providing their attackers with hospitality for two weeks, the MacDonalds, women and children included, were