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island. The buildings languished, falling literally into disrepair, since the National Park Service had a pitifully small amount of funding with which to heat or care for any of the buildings. Ceiling plaster fell, paint flaked, vegetation grew to jungle-like conditions, curtains rotted off rods, machinery and furniture rusted in place and collapsed. The roof leaked, pipes burst, windows broke in, and vandals stole valuable copper from the cupolas.23 The NPS created a Master Plan for use of the island, presenting a development concept that included interpretation for visitors focused on the examination process in the baggage room and main hall, exhibits of information on immigration in general, and a park for ethnic group activities which reflected immigrants' cultural origins.24 Despite having the plan and the public's support for a museum on Ellis Island, Congress still appropriated no money, and the island sat vacant and decaying for another ten years.25 No attempt to create a meaningful monument to the immigrants occurred until a determined citizen, Dr. Paul Sammartino, lobbied Congress to finally pay out money authorized in 1965 for use in rehabilitating the island in time for the 1976 Bicentennial celebrations. Because so little money ($1 million for repairs and $500,000 to the NPS for running the site) was finally appropriated, the island which opened to the public in May 1976 was a sad form of its earlier self. As a reporter from the New York Times described the main building, which was the only one open,

This one had been shored up and rendered safe, but it is moldering. Interior walls have crumbled. Mounds of fallen plaster and pools of rainwater from leaking roofs spread darkly across some of the floors. Dust and peeling paint are the most benign signs of the slow rot. Windows are out, and in one room moss and small trees are growing, and pigeons have settled in. Here and there bits of salvaged old furniture have been arranged forlornly in an attempt to recapture the era.26

What the NPS ultimately presented to the public was the image of an immigrant heritage about which the government cared very little. Its forlorn appearance, which was supposed to


23. Barbara Benton, Ellis Island: A Pictorial History (New York: Facts on File Publications, 1985); Tift, Ellis Island.
24. National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior, A Master Plan for Ellis Island, New York (Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1968).
25. Tift, Ellis Island.
26. Sidney H. Schumberg as quoted in Tift, Ellis Island, 171-2.
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